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European history is a primary subject of the General Research Division and constitutes a significant portion of its holdings. The collection is extensive in all types of historical materials, including monographs, scholarly journals, bibliographies, annual surveys, pamphlets, general histories and systematic works, printed archival sources, and biographies. Geographically, the General Research Division holdings span the European continent from Scandinavia to the Mediterranean basin, and from Great Britain to Central and Eastern Europe. Retrospective holdings are most extensive for British and French history, followed by the history of Germany. Historical materials for other European countries are well represented but have not been collected as intensively. Traditionally, the General Research Division has collected books in a wide variety of European languages; however, current purchases are limited primarily to French, German, English, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. The General Research Division also possesses several outstanding and unique collections in European history: on World War I, the French Revolution, British local history, and the Spanish Civil War.
In addition, the reseacher should keep in mind that "no statement of number of volumes or description of the books specifically classified as historical gives an adequate idea of the resources for historical study in a large library such as this" (Guide to the Collections of NYPL, comp. by Karl Brown, p. 11). This statement refers to the Library's abundant collections of government documents, periodicals, newspapers, learned society publications, and travel literature-all of potential interest to the student of history.
This guide will focus on reference tools aimed at researchers in modern European history, defined in this case as 1789 to the present. Many of these materials are located on the open shelves of the Main Reading Room, which also houses a large selection of historical monographs.
If you need further assistance, visit our reference desk, or e-mail us at email@example.com
Using the Catalogs
General instructions for locating materials are given in the Research Guide, How Do I Find a Book?. The following information is specific to the topic at hand.
In the Dictionary Catalog, for works on the history of Europe as a whole, see the heading Europe--History, subdivided by time period. For works on individual countries, see the subheading --History under the country name:
--Kings And Rulers
Works on the development of economic conditions are grouped together in the Dictionary Catalog under the main heading Economic History, which is then subdivided by region or country.
Subject terms in CATNYP are similar but not identical to those used in the Dictionary Catalog, and correspond to the Library of Congress Subject Headings, found in the red volumes next to the CATNYP terminals.
LCSH gives numerous subheadings under the main heading Europe, including
--Politics And Government
Each of these subheadings has specific chronological subdivisions, such as
Europe Social Conditions 1789-1900
Europe Civilization 20th Century
Also consult LCSH under the names of individual countries for specific subheadings and dates to use in subject searches, such as
Austria History 1867-1918
Guides To Research And Historical Literature
American Historical Association. Guide to Historical Literature. (New York: Macmillan, 1961.) *RB-B A comprehensive guide to historical literature for all periods and areas of the world. Especially strong on European history, with sections on individual countries, the expansion of Europe, World Wars I and II, and international relations. Most entries have brief annotations. Although now out-of-date, this volume is still useful, especially for retrospective bibliography and primary source material. A new edition is expected soon.
Barzun, Jacques, and Henry F. Graff. The Modern Researcher. (San Diego, CA: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1985) 4th ed. *R-*IH 85-4575. Two historians discuss the nuts and bolts of historical writing: library research, note-taking, verification of evidence, interpretation of facts, quoting from and citing sources, and editing for publication. The methodology described here reflects the authors' view that history is "narrative and synthetic, not static and analytic." Opinionated and highly readable.
Fritze, Ronald H., Brian E. Coutts and Louis A. Vyhnanek. Reference Sources in History: An Introductory Guide. (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1990.) *RS-B 91-2272. This volume surveys all types of reference materials useful to historians, including bibliographies, periodical guides and indexes, newspapers, statistical sources, government publications, and biographical sources. The emphasis is on English-language titles in the fields of American and European history. Each of the 685 entries is fully annotated. A useful update to Helen J. Poulton's Historian's Handbook: A Descriptive Guide to Reference Books (Norman, OK: University of Oklahoma Press, 1972) *RS-B 72-1426.
New Cambridge Modern History. (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1957-1979). 14 vol. *R-BAF 1970. The standard authoritative survey of Western history from the Renaissance to World War II, based on the original Cambridge Modern History, published from 1902 to 1912. According to the general introduction, European "civilisation is to be treated in all its aspects, political, economic, social, 'cultural' and religious." Unlike its predecessor, the NCMH does not include bibliographies; this omission was rectified with the publication of A Bibliography of Modern History, edited by John Roach, in 1968 (see below). Also consider the original CMH for its fuller coverage of early modern Europe (BAF or D-17/4250).
Rise of Modern Europe, edited by William L. Langer. (New York: Harper & Row, 1936-1985). *R-BTE. A 20-volume monographic series, aimed at students and the educated public, which covers European history from the thirteenth century through World War II. Editorial emphasis is on the "larger forces common to the whole of European civilization," rather than "the division of European history into national units." Each volume is written by a specialist and focuses on a particular phase of European history. Overall quality is high with several outstanding contributions. A detailed bibliographic essay concludes each volume.
Chronologies And Handbooks
Cook, Chris, and John Stevenson. Longman Handbook of Modern European History, 1763-1985. (London and New York: Longman, 1987). *R-BTV 87-6406 and Longman Handbook of World History since 1914 (London and New York: Longman, 1991). *R-BAF 91-4529. The first is an amalgam of facts organized into seven sections; most useful are the detailed chronologies of political events, lists of principal rulers and ministers, tables of economic and social statistics, and a selective bibliography. The later title follows much the same format.
Everyman's Dictionary of Dates. 7th ed. revised by Audrey Butler. (London: J.M. Dent & Sons, 1985). Pub. Cat. 86-572.
Freeman-Grenville, G.S.P. Chronology of World History: A Calendar of Principal Events from 3000 B.C. to A.D. 1973. (London: Rex Collins, 1975). *R-BAH 76-3303.
Steinberg, S.H. Historical Tables 58 B.C.-A.D. 1985. 11th ed. Updated by John Paxton. (London: MacMillan, 1986). *R-BAH 87-4814 and Pub. Cat. 87-300.
Both Freeman-Grenville and Steinberg provide a chronological listing of world events in tabular form, arranged into six columns. Steinberg has a European, and particularly British emphasis, and gives very detailed chronologies for World Wars I and II. Freeman-Grenville is more balanced in coverage of non-European history. Everyman's Dictionary of Dates recasts much the same information in dictionary format with detailed entries under names of countries, national literatures, and significant historical events. Especially useful for its lists: of Holy Roman Emperors, assassinations, British Army regiments, treaties, British Prime Ministers, etc.
Historical Abstracts; bibliography of the world's periodical literature. (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-Clio, 1955- ). Quarterly. *RB-BAA 74-868; current issues available in Room 108. This set is the major English-language index to journal articles in history and related fields, covering European and world history since 1450 (with the exception of United States and Canadian history). As of 1971 divided into two sections: Part A, Modern History Abstracts (1450-1914) and Part B, 20th Century Abstracts (1914- ). The arrangement is classified (primarily geographical), with author and subject indexes. Approximately 2,000 periodicals in many languages are indexed, as well as some books and dissertations beginning in 1980. All abstracts are in English. Annual indexes in no. 4 of each volume, as well as cumulated five-year indexes. Also available on CD-Rom from 1982 to the present.
CRIS; the combined retrospective index set to journals in history, 1838-1974. (Washington: Carrolton Press, 1977-78). 11 vol. Volumes 1-4 World History, Volumes 5-9 American History, Volumes 10-11 Author Index. *RS-BAA 77-4040. This set is aimed at a major gap in the historical literature: lack of access to older issues of many scholarly journals. CRIS provides a combination of subject and keyword indexing to articles from approximately 240 English-language journals in the field of history from their first issue through 1974. Each article appears under one or more of the 342 subject categories, which are then sorted by keyword and date. Articles are cited in a highly abbreviated format, with incomplete title and no indication of length. The computer-aided indexing is often problematic; lack of a clear list of indexed periodicals also lessens the set's usefulness. Most helpful for the author index.
Bibliographie der fremdsprachigen Zeitschriftenliteratur/International Index to Periodicals (Leipzig and Osnabrück: Verlag Felix Dietrich, 1911-1964; not published 1944-1948). *RG-*GB 85-1581. An index to articles in over 1,000 periodicals published in Great Britain, France, Italy, Belgium, Sweden, and other European countries as well as the United States. Arranged by keyword in German, with an author index beginning in 1925. Includes major historical journals. Merged with Bibliographie der deutschen Zeitschriftenliteratur published 1896-1964 (*RG-*GDH 85-1582) to form Internationale Bibliographie der Zeitschriftenliteratur 1964- (*R-*D 86-3081 and *RG-*GB 85-1592).
Foreign Affairs 5-Year Bibliography: New Evaluations of Significant Books on International Relations 1920-1970, edited by Byron Dexter. (New York: published for the Council on Foreign Relations by R.R. Bowker, 1972). *RS-B 91-7360. This volume represents a highly selective listing of over 2,000 books on history, diplomacy, international law and organizations, and political and economic affairs. Entries were culled from the Foreign Affairs Bibliography, published at 10-year intervals by the Council on Foreign Relations. Each entry has an extensive annotation explaining its status as a "landmark" book "significant for an understanding of the development of ideas and events of the period." An appendix lists important collections of government documents published since the 1920s: official histories of the World Wars, lists of treaties, and diplomatic records.
Roach, John, ed. Bibliography of Modern History. (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1968). *RS-BAF 76-3707. This volume was compiled to accompany the New Cambridge Modern History, which began appearing in 1957; sections are keyed to NCMH volumes and chapters. Section C covers the time period 1793-1945 and is broken down into subject areas as follows: 1) Economic and Social Conditions 2) Intellectual Life, Literature, Science and Education 3) Religion; Social and Political Institutions 4) Art of War 5) Politics of the European States 6) Histories of Separate Countries and Regions (including Europe, the Americas, Asia and Africa). Entries are highly selective and include only secondary material, with no references to manuscript or other primary sources. Articles are excluded and annotations are few. Cut-off date for inclusion is generally 1962.
Annual Bulletin of Historical Literature v. 1- , 1911- . (London: Historical Association, 1912- ). *RS-B. A yearly survey, primarily covering books but with some references to periodical articles. Specialists contribute individual chapters in the form of bibliographic essays which provide brief annotations, often qualitative. Coverage includes the ancient world, Africa, the Americas, the Middle East and the British Commonwealth, but is most detailed for European and especially British history. A useful source, with a publication delay of several years.
International Bibliography of the Historical Sciences v. 1- , publications of the year 1926- . Edited for the Inter-national Committee of Historical Sciences, 1930- . Annual. *RS-B. The most comprehensive attempt at bibliographic control of international historical literature. This annual (sometimes biennial) volume is a selective listing of books and articles for all periods of history, from preliterate through modern society; however, coverage of non-Western history is sometimes scanty. The classified arrangement includes a wide range of historical topics, including historical bibliography and historiography. No annotations are provided. A particular advantage of the IBHS is its coverage of a large variety of languages and countries of publication, but its unusual format-the language of the preface and table of contents rotates annually among English, French, German, Italian and Spanish-can be confusing. Publication delay of several years.
Bibliography By Country
Bibliographie annuelle de l'histoire de France. Année 1955- . (Paris: Édition du CNRS, 1956- ). Annual. *RB-D. Classified bibliography of books and articles on French history in Western European languages. Earlier volumes cover the history of France through 1938, now extended to 1958. No annotations are included.
Dahlmann-Waitz. Quellenkunde der deutschen Geschichte. 9th ed. (Leipzig: Verlag von K.F. Koehler, 1931. *RB-E.
Dahlmann-Waitz. Quellenkunde der deutschen Geschichte. 10th ed. (Stuttgart: Anton Hiersemann, 1965- ). In progress. *RB-E. The 10th edition of this standard work is a multi-volume, exhaustive compilation of primary and secondary sources in German only. Cut-off date for inclusion is generally 1960. Part A (Allgemeiner Teil) is now complete; Part B (Die einzelnen Zeitalter) is complete through the 18th century. Consult the 9th edition for sections not yet published.
Jahresberichte für deutsche Geschichte. Neue Folge 1- , Jahrgang 1949- . (Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1952- ). Biennial. EAA. Standard index of recent scholarship on German history from the earliest period through 1945, including English and other European languages.
Bibliography of British History (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1951- ). 6 vol. *RS-C and *RB-C. Highly detailed, authoritative bibliography of primary and secondary sources for all periods of British history, pre-Roman to 1914. A volume on twentieth-century Britain is forthcoming.
Conference on British Studies Bibliographical Handbooks. (Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1968-1987). 8 vol. Individually cataloged; *RS-CE - *RS-CLH. This series of bibliographic guides, detailing British history from 1485 to the present, is a useful choice for researchers who do not need the comprehensive coverage of the Bibliography of British History.
Annual Bibliography of British and Irish History publications of 1975- . (Hassocks, England: Harvester Press for the Royal Historical Society, 1976- ). *RS-C 87-4650. Yearly update of scholarship on British history through the 20th century.
Writings on Irish History. Appeared in the journal Irish Historical Studies, v. 1-42, 1938-1979. CSB. Published 1979/1980-1983 in microfiche. *XL-733. Currently appears as a separate periodical, Writings on Irish History 1984- . JFK 89-277.
See also Annual Bibliography of British and Irish History (above). *RS-C 87-4650.
Bibliografia storica nazionale, Anno 1, 1939- . (Roma and Bari: Giuseppe Laterza & Figli, 1942- ). *GDM. Index of books and articles published in Italy on Italian history. Annual through v. 32 (1970) except combined issues for 1943/46 and 1947/48. Biennial beginning v. 33 (1971/1972).
Indice historico español. (Barcelona: Editorial Teide, 1953- ). *R-HC (title on spine is Bibliografia historica de españa e hispanoamerica). Annotated index to books and articles on Spanish and Latin American history published in Western Europe and the Americas. Appears three times per year with annual indexes.
In the Dictionary Catalog, bibliographical works on a particular subject are listed under the relevant subject heading with the subdivision --Bibliography. CATNYP operates much the same way; the subdivision --Bibliography can be added to any subject search. A sampling of bibliographies on historical topics is below.
Bibliography of British Economic and Social History, compiled by W.H. Chaloner and R.C. Richardson. (Manchester, Eng: Manchester University Press, 1984). *RS-C 91-7376.
Bibliography of European Economic and Social History, compiled by Derek H. Aldcroft and Richard Rodger. (Manchester, Eng: Manchester University Press, 1984). *RS-BT 91-7374.
Caldwell, Ronald J. Era of the French Revolution: a bibliography of the history of Western civilization 1789-1799. 2 vol. (New York: Garland, 1985). JFF 87-1246 .
Enser, A.G.S. A Subject Bibliography of the First World War: books in English, 1914-1987. (London: Gower, 1990). *RS-BTZF 91-7374.
Frey, Linda, Marsha Frey and Joanne Schneider, editors. Women in Western European History: a select chronological, geographical and topical bibliography. 2 vol. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1982-1984). *RS-SNB 83-1400.
Gilmore, William J. Psychohistorical Inquiry: a comprehensive research bibliography. (New York: Garland, 1984). *RS-B 91-7357.
Modern European Imperialism: a bibliography of books and articles, 1815-1972, by John P. Halstead and Serafino Porcari. (Boston: G.K. Hall, 1974). 2 vol. JLF 83-558.
Rees, Philip. Fascism and Pre-Fascism in Europe, 1890-1945: a bibliography of the extreme right. (Brighton, Sussex: Harvester Press, 1984). *RS-BTZA 91-7340.
The list below represents NYPL's holdings, primarily on microfilm, for a number of European newspapers; however, it is not a complete list of our newspaper collection. Please consult a librarian in Room 315 for more information about newspaper holdings.
Times. London. Daily. 1785-date. *ZY.
Sunday Times. London. November 1822-date *ZY.
Clarion. London. Weekly. January 7, 1893-December 26, 1913 (incomplete) *ZY 90-31.
Courier and Evening Gazette. London. Daily except Sunday. January 2, 1796-December 31, 1803 (incomplete) *ZY.
Examiner, a Sunday paper on politics, domestic economy and theatricals (subtitle varies). London. Weekly. January 3, 1808-February 26, 1881 *ZAN-591/7E.
Pall Mall Gazette. London. Daily. February 7, 1865-October 27, 1923 *ZY.
La Figaro. Paris. Daily. 1880-1882; 1953-date *ZY. 1880-1952 *A (incomplete).
Le Fronde, journal feministe. Paris. Daily. December 9, 1897-December 1, 1903 *ZY 90-28.
Humanit; organe centrale du Parti communiste français. Paris. Daily. September 10, 1906-1924; 1932-1933; 1949-date: *ZY. 1926-1948: *A.
Le Monde. Paris. Daily. December 19, 1944-date *ZY 77-9; current issues available in Room 108.
New York Herald Tribune. Paris. European Edition October 4, 1887-June 3, 1940; December 22, 1944-December 5, 1966 *ZY. (filmed with this title is December 6-30, 1966 of the International Herald Tribune)
International Herald Tribune. Paris. Daily. 1967-date (incomplete) *ZY.
La Réforme; journal politique, commercial, judiciare et littéraire. Paris. July 29, 1843-January 12, 1850 (incomplete) *ZY.
Le Socialiste. Paris. Weekly. 1885-1913 (incomplete) *ZAN-T604.
Allgemeine Zeitung. Augsburg. Daily. August 3, 1841-December 31, 1855; January 1877 - December 31, 1922. *ZY 73-1.
Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Frankfurt. Daily. 1967-date. *ZY; current issues available in Room 108.
Der Tagesspiegel. Berlin. Daily. 1949-date *ZY.
Vorwärts, Berliner Volksblatt. Zentralorgan der sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands. Daily. 1891-February 1933 *ZY. Continued by: Neuer Vorwärts; sozialdemokratisches Wochenblatt. June 18, 1933-May 5, 1940. SFA+ Neuer Vorwärts; Zentralorgan der sozialdemokratischen Partei Deutschlands. Weekly. September 11, 1948-1954. *ZAN-T16.
Vorwärts; sozialdemokratische Wochenzeitung. 1955-April 30, 1989 *ZAN-T400.
Die Zeit; Wochenzeitung für Politik, Wirtschaft, Handel und Kultur. February 21, 1946-1951 *DF+++ (Zeit) 1952-date. *ZAN-817.
Avanti; organo del Partito socialista italiano. Weekly. 1929-1940 (incomplete) *ZAN-107.
Corriere della Sera. Milan. Daily. June 28, 1914-date (incomplete) *ZY; current issues available in Room 108.
Giornale d'Italia. Rome. December 1938-June 7, 1944 (incomplete); 1949 *ZY.
Gazetta di Venezia. Venice. Daily. 1847-September 1851; 1852-1854; 1856-June 1920 *ZY.
La Epoca. Madrid. Daily. January 2, 1870-July 1936. *ZY.
El Sol. Madrid. Daily. December 1917-November 2, 1936 *ZY 72-1.
La Voz de España. San Sebastian. Daily except Monday. July 16, 1939-August 17, 1944 (incomplete) *ZY.
Neue Zürcher Zeitung und Schweizerisches Handelsblatt. Zürich. Daily. July 1900-1909; 1914-1916; 1951-date: *ZY. 1916-1950: *A; current issues available in Room 108.
Yearbooks and annual surveys are valuable for a contemporary perspective on historical events. Although they vary in format, most offer a chronology of national events during the preceding year, with further sections detailing developments in other countries and international politics; additional material varies. Publications below are annual unless otherwise noted.
Annuaire historique universel. Paris. 1818-1861. BAA.
Annual Register. London. 1758-date. *RG-*AL 85-1507. Indexes: 1758-1819.
Facts on File. New York. Oct. 30/Nov. 5, 1940-date. Weekly, with annual cumulations. 1941-1943: BAA; 1945-date: *R-*A 86-1010.
Keesing's Contemporary Archives. London. July 1, 1931-December 1986. Weekly, 1931-1975; Monthly, 1976-1986. BAA (Keesings Contemporary Archives). Continued by: Keesing's Record of World Events, London. January 1987-date. Monthly. JLM 87-804; current issues in *R-Econ. 87-4012.
Schulthess' Europäischer Geschichtskalender. Nördlingen and Munich. 1860/61-1941. BTA (Schulthess' Europäischer Geschichtskalender).
Survey of International Affairs. London. 1920/23-1963. Indexes: 1920-1938. *R-BAA. A related publication, Documents on International Affairs,contains text of treaties, government announcements, speeches, etc. London, 1928-1963. *R-BAA.
Microform sets reproduce rare or unique material-archives, books, journals, etc.-in order to make them more widely available to researchers. Listed below are some of the microform sets of historical materials available at the Microforms Desk. More information on these sets is available on CATNYP.
Berlin. Conference. 1945. Potsdam Conference Documents. *ZH-727; printed guide in *ZH-726+.
British Biographical Archive, "a one-alphabet cumulation of 324 of the most important English-language biographical reference works originally published between 1601-1929." *XM-16, 823.
Deutsches Biographisches Archiv [in progress], "eine Kumulation aus 254 der wichtigsten biographischen Nachschlagewerke für den deutschen Bereich bis zum Ausgang des neun-zehnten Jahrhunderts." *XM-16,822.
Eighteenth Century, based on the ESTC, consisting of works printed in the British Empire, or printed in English anywhere else in the world from 1701-1800. [in progress] *ZAN-5681; title listing in *ZAN-5681+.
Fabian Society, London. Archives of the Fabian Society, *ZT-1392 and *XME-10, 878; printed guide in *ZT-1392+.
Gerritsen Women's History. *XM-18,470 and *Z-4908; periodicals listing in *Z-4908+ and bibliographic guide in *Z-4908+ and Pub. Cat. 89-554.
Great Britain. Prime Minister. Cabinet Reports by Prime Ministers to the Crown, 1837-1867. *Z-2861. Cabinet Reports by Prime Ministers to the Crown, 1868-1916. *Z-2726.
Imperial War Museum, London. Women at Work Collection. *Z-5494; printed guide in *Z-5494+.
International Military Tribunals, Nuremberg. Trial of the Major War Criminals, 14 November 1945 - 1 October 1946. *XM-14,490.
Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei. Akten der Partei-Kanzlei der NSDAP *XM-15,838; finding aids in *XM-15,838+ and *XM-15,838++.
Nineteenth Century [in progress]. Reproduces selected titles from the Nineteenth Century Short-Title Catalog (also in progress) in a wide range of subject areas. *XM-17,725; contents list in *XM-17,725+
Pamphlets on the Spanish Civil War [assembled by Library of Congress] *Z-2214.
Spanish Civil War Pamphlets [originals in NYPL] *Z-4586; checklist in *Z-4586+.
Wiener Library, London. Wiener Library - Books and Pamphlets. *Z-3392.
Working Class Autobiographies from the British Library, London. *Z-4455 [based on a 3-volume bibliography in JLL 89-26]
Blackwell Dictionary of Historians, edited by John Cannon. (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988). *R-AB 88-4957. This biographical dictionary summarizes the life, work and reputation of approximately 450 historians, including for each a list of major publications and a few references for further reading. Also included is a sprinkling of entries on historical terms as well as historiographical surveys limited to "those countries and regions with which our readers may be less familiar," e.g. non-Western areas.
Kinnell, Susan K. Historiography: an annotated bibliography of journal articles, books and dissertations. (Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1987). 2 vol. *RS-BAM 91-7349. This set consists of over 8,000 citations drawn from the America: History and Life and Historical Abstracts databases, from 1970 through 1985. Entries are primarily journal articles, with short sections devoted to books and dissertations. Volume 1 covers topics in historiography and methodology; social, political, economic, and intellectual history; individual historians and schools of historiography. Volume 2 is arranged by country/region. Entries are in many languages; however, all abstracts are in English.
Ritter, Harry. Dictionary of Concepts in History. (Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, 1986). *R-BAB. A very useful work for the beginning graduate student or anyone seeking an introduction to historical terminology and historiography. Detailed entries discuss the use of specific terms such as "event" and "process" as well as broader concepts ("civilization," "objectivity") and historical movements including New History, social history and intellectual history. Includes bibliographies.
Study of History: A Bibliographical Guide, compiled by R.C. Richardson. (Manchester, England: Manchester University Press, 1988). JFE 88-7835. An introductory list of references to books and articles on historiography, designed for students at British universities. Covers Western history from antiquity through the twentieth century, emphasizing British history and historians. Includes sections on individual historians, social history, women's history, Marxist history, psychohistory and economic history. Some brief annotations.